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When reacting components are charged or involve electron transfer, additional
terms must be added to the chemical potential to represent the extra energy
of a charged species in an electrostatic potential. The sum of the chemical
potential and the electrostatic potential defines the ``electrochemical potential.''
At equilibrium, the electrochemical potentials are equal between phases. The
electrochemical potential yields the Nernst equation. The Nernst equation is
exactly the same as an equilibrium constant equation, except with the energy
of charged species being added in.

W. Craig Carter
2002-09-05