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**Generalizing Equilibrium to More Degrees of Freedom**-

**Example: Internal Degrees of Freedom**-

**Worked Example: Origin of the Lever Rule**-

- Equilibrium for a System with Internal Degrees of Freedom
- Equilibrium with constraints that are more practical
- That which is Minimized at Equilibrium for Constant P and T
- That which is Minimized at Equilibrium for Constant V and T
- The Potential to add a Chemical Species
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W. Craig Carter 2002-10-22